Prostate Cancer

About Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer usually starts in the prostate gland, which is a walnut sized gland at the base of the bladder in men. It is the second most common occurring cancer in men. There were an estimated 1 million cases reported globally in 2018.

Symptoms of prostate cancer are increased frequency in urination, difficulty to pass urine, urgency or urination, blood in urine or semen and erection problems. Factors which can increase chances of getting prostate cancer include a family history, inherited mutated genes, age, exposure to radiation and obesity.

Prostate cancer can be detected through physical examination and symptoms by your doctor. Your doctor may suggest a Prostate Specific  Antigen (PSA) test, Transrectal Ultrasound Scan (TURS), MRI scan and TRUS biopsy.

Once prostate cancer has been diagnosed, doctors will determine the stage of cancer and whether or not it is metastatic; based on which doctors would be able to devise a treatment plan.Prostate cancer treatment varies depending on the stage of cancer and whether or not the cancer has spread. Treatments include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, vaccines, cryotherapy, high intensity focal ultrasound (HIFU), hormone therapy and targeted drug therapy.

To know more about prostate cancer you can refer to our Prostate Cancer Guide


For men aged 55 – 69 years, the decision to undergo periodic prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening should be an invidiaul decision.

The U.S Preventive Screening Task Force (USPSTF) recommend against PSA -based screening for prostate cancer in men 70 years and older.

our experts

Dr Avanish Arora

Senior Consultant Urology & Uro - Oncology

Professor Hashim Ahmed

Consultant Urological Surgeon, Professor & Chair of Urology



Surgery: Radical prostatectomy, this can be done in an open surgery, laparoscopic surgery or robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery.

Chemotherapy: This is given by administrating drugs intravenously (IV), intra-arterially (IA) or via intra – peritoneal (IP) injections to destroy cancer cells. This treatment can last up to many weeks.

Radiotherapy: This is performed by directing radiation beams at the targeted area, and like chemotherapy this treatment usually requires multiple sessions which are performed over a series of weeks.

Cryotherapy: This is also called as cryosurgery or cry-ablation. It is the use of very cold temperatures to freeze and kill prostate cancer cells. Despite it sometimes being called as cryosurgery, it is not actually a type of surgery.

Hormone Therapy: This is also called as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen suppression therapy. The goal is to reduce levels of male hormones, called androgens in the body or to stop them from affecting prostate cancer cells.

Sipuleucel – T (Provenge): This is a cancer vaccine Unlike traditional vaccines which boost the bodied immune system to help prevent infections, this vaccine boosts the immune system to help it attack prostate cancer cells.

Treatments are often used in combination with each other, particularly is the cancer is advanced and surgery is being performed. Chemotherapy may often be used before surgery to shrink the tumour or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that could not be removed during surgery.

You may experience vomiting, nausea, hair loss, fatigue & body pain during treatment. Please do not hesitate to discuss this further with your doctor, for more information on the management of any symptoms.


  • Most patients require a post – surgical recovery period of up to 4- 6 weeks. Speak to your surgeon to understand the amount of recovery you would need following your treatment.
  • Appropriate rest is also important during this period.
  • If there is pain and discomfort then please speak to your doctor for its management.

length of stay

Hospital Stay:     3-7 days for surgery

Total Stay:           Depending upon treatment the length of stay can wary from 2 weeks to a few months

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