Bladder Cancer Guide

Bladder cancer is more common in older adults above the age of 60. Cancer always begins in the lining of the bladder.

Risk Factors

  • Smoking
  • Chemicals at workplace
  • Disinfectant chemicals in water
  • Medical conditions needing catheters
  • Bladder infections
  • Alcohol


  • Transitional cell bladder cancer
  • Squamous Cell bladder cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Sarcomas
  • Secondary cancer due to metastasis


Stage 0 means the inner layer of the bladder has cancerous cells

Stage 1 means cancer has begun to grow into the connective tissue under the bladder lining

Stage 2 means cancer has grown through the connective tissue layer into the muscle layer of the bladder wall

Stage 3 means that cancer has spread to the fat layer and nearby organs like prostrate in males and vagina or womb in women

Stage 4 means that cancer is advanced and has spread to the abdominal walls, pelvic region, lymph nodes and other parts of the body


  • Blood in urine
  • Urgency in passing urine
  • Increased frequency of passing urine
  • Pain or discomfort while passing urine

Genetic Predisposition



  • Transurethral removal of bladder tumour
  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Intra-vesical BCG
  • Electrically stimulated Intra-vesical chemotherapy