Breast Cancer

Breast cancer, as the name suggests, begins in the cells lining the milk ducts of the breast. It is the most common type of cancer affecting women in the world. The survival rates, are, however, over 80%.

Risk Factors

  • Common in women > 40 years of age
  • Higher risk if a close relative like mother, daughter or sister has had breast cancer or any other type of cancer
  • Obese and overweight individuals
  • Increased intake of alcohol
  • Previous history of benign breast conditions or other cancers
  • Women with diabetes
  • Women with early onset of menstruation or late menopause
  • Women with dense breast tissue
  • Exposure to radiation

Types

  • Invasive
  • Invasive Lobular
  • Triple Negative
  • Inflammatory
  • Angiosarcoma of the breast
  • Male Breast Cancer
  • Ductal Carcinoma In-situ(DCIS)
  • Lobular Carcinoma In-situ(LCIS)
  • Paget’s Disease of the Breast

Stages

Stage 1 means the cancer is contained only in the breast tissue or it might have extended to lymph nodes near the breast

Stage 2 means the cancer is either in the breast or in the nearby lymph nodes or both

Stage 3 means that cancer has spread from the breast to the lymph nodes nearby, to the skin of the breast or to the chest wall

Stage 4 means it may have spread to other parts of the body

Symptoms

  • Breast lump
  • Change in the size, shape or feel of a breast
  • Pain in one or both breasts
  • Puckering, dimpling, rash, or redness of the skin of the breast
  • Change in the position of the nipple
  • Fluid leaking from the nipple

Genetic Predisposition

  1. BRAC1 and BRAC2
  2. 2TP53 and PTEN
  3. PALB2

Treatment

  • Surgical
  • External radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormonal therapy
  • Targeted Cancer Drugs