Multiple Myeloma

Multiple Myeloma is a type of cancer that arises from the plasma cells found in the bone marrow. It is a type of blood cancer. It is more common in men than women.

Risk Factors

  • People with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Underlined Significance (MGUS)
  • Family history
  • Lowered immunity
  • Obesity
  • Past history of radiation exposure


  • Light Chain
  • Non-secretory
  • Heavy chain myeloma based on  the immunoglobulin that is overproduced i.e Ig A, M, D, E


According to the International Staging System(ISS)

Stage 1 means the level of the protein beta 2 microglobulin is <3.5 mg/L. The level of albumin is >3.5 g/dL

Stage 2 means the level of beta 2 microglobulin is between 3.5 and 5.5 mg/L with an albumin level or the level of beta 2 microglobulin is <3.5 mg/L and the level of albumin is <3.5g/dL

Stage 3 means the level of beta 2 microglobulin >5.5mg/L


  • Lack of healthy blood cells (that are picked up by a routine blood test)
  • Pain in the bones
  • Bone damage
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Swollen ankles

Genetic Predisposition



  • Chemotherapy
  • Biological Therapy
  • Steroids
  • Immunomodulating agents
  • Proteasome inhibitors
  • Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Bisphosphonates for bone disease
  • Radiotherapy