Prostate Cancer Guide

Most prostate cancers start in the outer glandular cells of the prostate gland. While some of these cancers grow extremely slowly and are benign, some grow more quickly. Prostrate cancer is the 3rd leading cancer in India and accounts for 7% of all cancers.

Risk Factors

  • Common in older men (>50yrs of age)
  • Higher risk if a close relative had prostate cancer
  • Obese and overweight individuals
  • High level of IGF-1 in the body

Types

  • Transitional cell bladder cancer
  • Squamous Cell bladder cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Sarcomas

Stages

Stage 1 means the cancer is contained in only half of one side of the prostate or less

Stage 2 means the cancer is in more than half of one side of the prostate and is still contained within the prostate

Stage 3 means that cancer has broken through the capsule covering the prostate gland. It may or may not have spread to the seminal vesicles

Stage 4 means it may have spread to the nearby organs, lymph nodes and far body organs

Symptoms

  • Burning or pain during urination
  • Difficulty in passing urine, or trouble starting and stopping while urinating
  • More frequent urge to pass urine at night
  • Loss of bladder controlBlood in urine (hematuria)

Genetic Predisposition

  • BRAC 1 and BRAC 2
  • Men with Lynch syndrome caused by a
    defect in one of the genes e.g. MSH2 andMLH1 genes

Treatment

  • Surgical
  • External radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Brachytherapy
  • Hormonal therapy
  • Targeted therapy